Hemp News 30
Submitted by restore on Mon, 12/13/2010 - 21:40
Hemp News No. 30
Compiled byPaul Stanford
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We offer nonwood office and printing paper, note pads, card stock, cover stock, hemp pulp for paper makers, whole hempstalks and 100% hemp bast fiber. Without further ado, please enjoy the news: UPn 02/10/95 Administration says drug use growing By PAUL BASKEN WASHINGTON, Feb. 10 (UPI) -- U.S. drug czar Lee Brown on Friday conceded a growing use of illegal drugs nationwide, but urged the Republican-led Congress not to abandon the administration's emphasis on treatment over enforcement. But Republicans, leading a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing on drug policy, branded the Clinton administration strategy a clear failure and insisted it develop a tougher response that depends more on police, courts and jails. "A major share of the blame for the deterioration in the nation's efforts in the war on drugs must be laid squarely on the lack of presidential leadership on this issue," declared Judiciary Committee Chairman Orrin Hatch, R-Utah. Brown, the administration's chief of drug control policy, did not dispute that the problem was growing. "Drugs are readily available to anyone who wants to buy them," Brown said. "Cocaine and heroin street prices are low and purity is high, making use more feasible and affordable than ever. "Marijuana is increasingly available, potent and cheap, enticing a new generation of users," Brown said. "Current coca cultivation in Latin America is three times what is necessary to supply the needs of the U.S. market." But Brown insisted the administration -- which requested a fiscal 1996 drug control budget of $14.6 billion, up 9.7 percent over this year -- had a "tougher than ever" strategy for confronting the problem, led by its continuing emphasis on treatment programs for hardcore users. Hatch made clear that Republicans were not satisfied either with President Clinton's policies or his apparent attitudes. "President Clinton has failed in the first two years of his administration to use his office as he should, as a bully pulpit against the use of illegal drugs," and has pursued policies such as shifting interdiction efforts that have been a "dismal failure," Hatch said. One of Brown's predecessors as drug czar, William Bennett, was even more caustic. "During the 1980s, Nancy Reagan was ridiculed for her 'Just Say No' campaign," Bennett told the committee. "But it turns out that 'Just Say No' is far more effective than 'I didn't inhale.'" Bennett cited a "disturbing pattern" of administration activities, including an 80 percent reduction in Brown's staff; cuts of more than 600 drug-enforcement positions in other federal agencies; suspension of military involvement in monitoring drug trafficking in Latin America; proposals by administration officials to reduce mandatory minimum prison sentences for drug offenses; and a study of the possibility of legalizing certain drugs. Members of both parties agreed that the most disturbing statistics were those showing increased levels of drug use among children. The number of high school seniors who have used drugs grew 2.7 percent last year, and those who said they used drugs within the past month jumped 3. 6 percent. Brown said the administration wanted to fight back against such numbers by keeping the primary emphasis on treatment. "Research indicates that the best way to reduce the problem of illicit drug use and its consequences is to reduce the number of chronic, hardcore users," Brown said, and "the best way to reduce chronic drug is to provide effective drug treatment in our communities, and in our jails and prisons." He said such chronic users "are responsible, directly and indirectly, for much of the violence and crime associated with drug trafficking." Hatch disagreed, saying chronic users, "although they consume a large percentage of total drugs, represent a much smaller percentage of total drug abusers. "I believe that our limited resources would be better targeted at preventing casual use that progresses to hardcore addiction, so that new hardcore users are never created," Hatch said. The Republicans now controlling Congress have targeted prevention programs contained in the $30 billion crime package that the Democratic- controlled Congress approved last year. A GOP crime bill expected to come to the House floor next week would eliminate the prevention programs and use the funds for block grants to states and munipalities so that local officials can decide how to use the money. It also would eliminate funding for special drug courts, which use a coordinated combination of early intervention and drug treatment to target youthful offenders before they graduate to more serious drugs and crimes. The legislation is the most controversial of the six crime-related bills offered by Republicans. House Democrats and the Clinton administration have promised to fight the bill because it would cut funding for a program to hire 100,000 new police officers nationwide. The Senate Judiciary Committee heard Friday from Delaware Supreme Court Judge Richard Gebelein, who pleaded with Republicans not to eliminate funding for the drug courts. "Drug courts fight crime smart, that is why in communities where they have been created they are supported by the police and by the prosecutors," Gebelein said in a statement delivered to the committee on behalf of The National Association of Drug Court Professionals. RTna 02/10/95 Republicans blame Clinton for drug policy failure By Robert Green WASHINGTON (Reuter) - Republicans called President Clinton's drug policy a failure Friday as the administration's anti-narcotics chief conceded the problem was getting worse. "President Clinton has failed in the first two years of his administration to use his office as he should as a bully pulpit against the use of illegal drugs," Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Orrin Hatch said at a hearing on drug control strategy. "For two years now, we have had an administration drug policy that has shown little or no coordinated action. There has been a decline in prosecutorial efforts, accompanied by a decline in seizures of illegal drugs as well," said Hatch, a Utah Republican. William Bennett, director of drug control policy under Republican President George Bush, said Clinton's attitude toward drugs was part of the problem, citing Clinton's comment that he had once tried marijuana but did not inhale it. "Policy follows attitude. The Clinton administration has been AWOL (absent without official leave) in the war on drugs. Indeed, it has shown much more interest in the baseball strike than the devastation of the young by drugs," Bennett said. Lee Brown, Clinton's director of drug control policy, said drug use among teen-agers was increasing after several years of decline. He said illegal drugs were readily available to anyone who wants them while hard-core drug use was widespread and responsible for much of the nation's crime and violence. "Casual drug use is increasing, especially among adolescents," Brown said. "The attitude among many young people today reflects an easy acceptance of drug use, and less disapproval of those who do use drugs. "The growing availability of cheap, high-purity heroin raises concerns about the possibility of another heroin epidemic," Brown added. Brown said the administration believed the way to fight drugs was through a balanced program of prevention and treatment for users along with arrests of drug dealers and interdiction of narcotics shipments from other countries. Republicans want to stress enforcement and interdiction and reduce funds for treatment and prevention but Brown said that would be a mistake. "The Republican crime bill seeks to destroy the careful balance of punishment and prevention we all worked so hard to create. I hope that another solution can be found to preserve the programs that we know work," Brown said. REUTER RTna 02/12/95 Study shows government snitches controlling agents NEW YORK (Reuter) - Highly-paid government informants are gaining increasing control over their handlers and the laws to control the use of snitches are often flouted, a study to be released Monday shows. The National Law Journal, a New York-based weekly publication, concluded after a nine-month investigation that "law enforcement's reliance on informants has grown to almost Orwellian proportions as snitches exert growing control over agents and judges fail to impose any checks or balances." The results of the study, which appear in the trade journal's current issue, appear as publicity heightens over the trial of a militant Muslim cleric and his followers who are charged with planning to bomb U.S. landmarks and assassinate political leaders. One of the key witnesses in the trial of Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman will be government informant Emad Salem, who was paid $1 million by the government for his help. However, the Law Journal reports that most abuses by informants and law enforcement officials stems from the country's war on drugs. The paper says that new forfeiture laws have made drug busts "a law enforcement prize, generating lots of cash both to pay informants and to increase their own operating budgets." It says that mandatory sentencing laws with their steep prison terms have created powerful incentives for criminals to take any steps to avoid jail. The journal quotes federal Judge Stephen Trott of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals as warning prosecutors that criminals will do anything to stay out of prison, including "lying, committing perjury, manufacturing evidence, soliciting others to corroborate their lies with more lies and double-crossing anyone with whom they come into contact, including -- and especially -- the prosecutor." In addition to abuse by out-of-control informants and the agents who rely on them, the journal found that rules for controlling the use of informants are often flouted. "In day-to-day practice, there is almost no independent judicial oversight of the symbiotic relationship between agents and their highly paid snitches. And when the details of these shadowy alliances do come to light, it is usually because something has gone horribly, fatally wrong," the paper found. REUTER APn 02/13/95 Crime-Informants NEW YORK (AP) -- Federal law enforcement agencies spent $97 million on informers in 1993, nearly four times what they spent eight years earlier, the National Law Journal reported today. In its Feb. 13 issue, the New York-based weekly quoted judges and others who said the use of informers was getting out of hand. "The integrity of the criminal justice system is at stake," said Stephen J. Trott, who headed the Justice Department's Criminal Division in the Reagan administration and is now a federal appeals court judge. "There needs to be better control and supervision of informants." Michael Levine, who spent 25 years as an agent for the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Customs Service, contended that federal agents have abdicated responsibility by allowing "about 15,000 wild, out-of-control informants" to take over investigations, even dictating what the agents do. Using paid informants was defended by U.S. Attorney Mary Jo White, whose office relied mainly on a secret informant, Emad Salem, to build a case against a group of men currently on trial on charges they plotted to blow up New York City landmarks. "Problems with informants is an ongoing issue for us, but the use of informants is essential to intelligence," White told the newspaper. "In many cases, using informants is the only way to proceed." Salem, a former confidant of Sheik Omar Abdel-Rahman, who is accused as the spiritual leader of the scheme, was paid more than $1 million for his help, prosecutors have said. "Most of the time there are two or three informants and sometimes they are worse criminals than the defendant on trial," said U.S. District Judge Marvin H. Shoob of Atlanta. "I can't tell you the last time I heard a drug case of any substance that did not have at least one informant," Shoob said. RTw 02/14/95 Honduran police make record pot bust TEGUCIGALPA, Feb 14 (Reuter) - Honduran police arrested three men after uncovering the largest marijuana plantation in the country's history, officials said on Tuesday. Police spokesman Danilo Orellana said the plantation, located in Honduras' rugged northern mountains, covered 2.4 square miles (6.2 sq km). Anti-drug agents found 1,616 pounds (733 kg) of harvested marijuana and 125,000 plants growing on the land, he said. Orellana said the amount of marijuana found and the size of the plantation were "without precedent" in Honduras. "We assume it's for export since it exceeds any kind of local demand," he said. Orellana said the three men were being held but police were looking for others linked to the huge operation. The marijuana was valued at $2.7 million. REUTER UPn 02/14/95 us-crime-senate (ED: 1grafcrn5thgraf xxx he said. pickup6thgraf: constantine quoted -- correcting quote attribution to constantine said. (PR: constantine: KOHN-stan-tighn; freeh: FREE) FBI, DEA chiefs sound warning By MICHAEL KIRKLAND WASHINGTON, Feb. 14 (UPI) -- The nation's top federal cops sounded a warning Tuesday before a Senate panel, saying that illegal drug trade and drug related violent crimes are on the rise. "The solution (to the mounting drug problem) is going to be 10 or 15 years of tremendous national will and the commitment of resources," said the chief of the Drug Enforcement Administration, Thomas Constantine. FBI Director Louis Freeh, testifying with Constantine before the Senate Judiciary Committee on federal law enforcement priorities, said violent crime has increased more than 50 percent in 10 years. "The level of fear is even higher," he said. Later Constantine said, "I don't think there has been a real war on drugs in this country since the problem exploded on us in the 1960s." Constantine quoted a letter he received from an elderly woman who said she was too afraid to walk through her own neighborhood because of gang and drug activity. "I see children playing around crack pushers and drug users...For God's sake something needs to be done. Do it," the woman wrote Constantine. Constantine said one-third of violent crimes and one-half of all homicides are now drug-related -- but solving the homicides is generally below the 60 percent level, and below 50 percent in some cities. "Things will get worse before they get better," the DEA chief said. There has been a sharp increase in violent crime among those aged 15-19, he said, and that portion of the U.S. population is growing. Baltimore tops the list of U.S. cities with cocaine-related hospital emergencies, at six times the national average, followed by New York at five times the national average and Detroit at four times the national average, he said. One Colombian drug cartel, which Constantine called the "Cali Mafia, " is responsible for 90 percent of the cocaine that comes into the United States. The cartel is "the most powerful organized crime system that this world has ever seen," Constantine said, and is "one of the most significant threats to the American way of life." The DEA chief said the cartel flies tons of cocaine into airstrips in northern Mexico for smuggling across the U.S. border, and in one night flies out $20 million to $30 million in drug money collected in the United States. Committee member Sen. Fred Thompson, R-Tenn., asked Freeh and Constantine whether corruption in Mexico was keeping that country from interdicting the drug flights. Freeh replied that a newly elected Mexican administration "has a very solid commitment" to fight corruption. In his testimony, the FBI director outlined the rise of crime in the United States and the commitment of his resources -- 9,742 FBI agents, as opposed to 38,000 police officers in New York City. "From 1960 through 1993," Freeh said, "the number of violent crimes reported in America increased 567 percent. In the last 10 years it increased 51 percent. The level of fear is even higher." Freeh highlighted organized crime as one of the bureau's main targets, but said the problem has gone beyond the traditional organized crime families. Asian organized crime, including Chinese triads, criminally influenced Chinese Tongs, Japanese Boryokudan groups, Vietnamese street gangs and Korean criminal enterprises also are on the rise, he said. He also warned of the Russian-Eurasian crime syndicates that have begun to operate in the United States. The Clinton administration budget for fiscal year 1996 includes 6 percent increases in the FBI and DEA budgets, but committee chairman Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, and ranking minority member Sen. Joseph Biden, D-Del, pledged to work for even more funding. RTw 02/15/95 China province has executed 500 for drugs BEIJING, Feb 15 (Reuter) - China's southwest province of Yunnan executed 466 people for drug offences in 1994 and said the amount of heroin seized fell for the first time in 10 years, the Economic Information Daily said on Wednesday. Yunnan's war on drugs has shown no signs of abating, according to a report in Wednesday's Legal Daily, which said 26 people had been put to death for drug crimes this year. The province is China's anti-drug frontline because it abuts the opium-growing Golden Triangle of Southeast Asia, including north Burma, parts of which are controlled by warlords who finance their armies by trafficking heroin and opium. Yunnan authorities seized 2.81 tonnes of heroin in 1994, down from three tonnes in 1993, and arrested 6,632 for drug offences, of whom 1,644 were tried and sentenced to death or prison terms, Economic Information Daily said. "Four hundred sixty-six were shot to death," the newspaper said. A bullet to the back of the head is China's standard method of execution. The most important arrest during the year was that of Yang Maojian, a major trafficker, who was caught on May 8 as he entered Yunnan from Burma in a jeep. He was executed for selling 270 kg (595 pounds) of heroin. Officials noted that after the death of Yang, whose brother is a warlord in an opium-growing part of northern Burma, the flow of heroin into Yunnan slowed, the paper said. The newspaper also reported a positive effect of the war on drugs, saying Chinese experts had begun entering Burma to teach opium farmers how to grow profitable and legalcash crops such as sugarcane, tea and rubber. The Legal Daily said that of the 26 executed in Yunnan so far in 1995, 19 were drug pedlars working inside the province while seven were cross-border traffickers. One trafficker from Taiwan was put to death for buying 4.6 kg (10 pounds) of heroin in Kunming, the provincial capital, the report said. Doctors believe Yunnan has at least 100,000 heroin addicts but say drug abuse has surged nationwide, mainly in major cities where citizens have been enriched by market reforms. REUTER APn 02/16/95 Drug War By JOHN DIAMOND Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- The multibillion-dollar U.S. war on drugs has done little to stop the flow of cocaine and other narcotics into the United States, a top general told lawmakers Thursday. Gen. Barry R. McCaffrey, head of the U.S. Southern Command encompassing all of Latin America, said that despite a well organized and costly counter-drug operation, "these current efforts are not achieving their purpose." Cocaine remains plentiful on the streets of the United States at stable prices. Production in cocaine-growing regions continues to increase. Organized seizures and destruction of cocaine crops eradicates a tiny fraction of total production. "A multiyear effort involving substantial resources and enormous energy and creativity," McCaffrey said, "has not had the effect we desired." Members of the Senate Armed Services Committee expressed concern that a $13 billion annual U.S. commitment to the war on drugs has produced so little. "Your message is candid but very discouraging," said Sen. Richard Bryan, D-Nev. "I don't see how we impact this overall problem." Sen. John Warner, R-Va., suggested that the Pentagon conduct a "bottom-up review" of its anti-drug efforts and develop new strategies. The military spends about $700 million contributing to the U.S. counter-drug strategy. Most of the rest of the $13 billion annual drug war budget goes to law enforcement agencies, such as the Drug Enforcement Agency, and to programs designed to assist other countries combat drug production within their borders. McCaffrey portrayed an insatiable drug market able to adapt to law enforcement agencies by quickly changing drug routes and methods of production. "All too often, progress in one area is offset by a negative development elsewhere," McCaffrey said. "As long as there is domestic demand, some entrepreneur will find a way to meet it." For example, where drug smugglers recently used Guatemala as a way station for cocaine shipments from Colombia to Mexico, smugglers now are skipping the halfway point and using Boeing 727-sized aircraft with multi-ton loads, McCaffrey said. McCaffrey said the Southern Command, headquartered in Panama, is turning its focus to Peru as the source of 80 percent of the cocaine that reaches America's streets. Having checked rebel insurrection and improved the local economy, McCaffrey said, the government of President Alberto Fujimori "is now ready to tackle narco-trafficking." While he acknowledged the difficulty of tackling the drug problem, McCaffrey rejected suggestions that it is insurmountable. "I think part of the problem has been our decision to call it a war," McCaffrey said. "I prefer to think of it as more of a cancer. I don't think about achieving victory but about dealing with the problem." RTw 02/16/95 Australian farmers given a legal taste of cannabis By Belinda Goldsmith SYDNEY, Feb 16 (Reuter) - Farmers in South Australia are being told to take a long, hard, legal stare at cannabis, which is being touted as the most environmentally sound crop of the 1990s. South Australia on Thursday became the second of Australia's six states to give the green light for trial plantings of industrial hemp, which is already grown in some other countries. South Australian Health Minister Michael Armitage said the hemp was a close relative of the marijuana plant but with low doses of the narcotic ingredient THC and is ideal for making fibre for rope, clothing and paper. "In due course these trials may pave the way for new primary and processing industries in this state," Armitage said in a statement on Thursday. Laws governing marijuana vary between Australian states and territories from being totally illegal to allowing a person to possess enough for personal use. Hemp was widely used around the world until the 1920s for a variety of purposes, including ship sails, in medicines and as a fuel in lamps. Hemp lost much of its popularity as the smoking value of the plant sparked anti-drug campaigns, which eventually saw the plant outlawed in many countries, including Australia. Now, Armitage said, the South Australian government, following the lead of island state of Tasmania, recognises the need for agricultural diversification where farmers have been fighting one of the nation's worst droughts. "It (hemp) competes very favourably with cotton as a fibre producing up to three times more fibre than cotton without the attendant requirement of intensive irrigation and pest control programmes," Armitage said. Hemp has been widely hailed as the super crop of the 1990s as no pesticides or chemicals are used in its growth and the amount of chemicals used in processing is cut by 80 percent. Managing Director Marco Bogaers of Australia's largest cannabis clothing company, Slaam Streetwear, said the plants used to produce cannabis cloth are genetically altered to promote long woody stems superior for making fibre and less foliage and seeds and, importantly, less THC.. "The level of THC in the cloth is extremely low, about 0.01 percent, and you'd have to smoke about five pairs of jeans to feel any effect," Bogaers told Reuters on Thursday. "But people have this fear the plant is a drug and would be exploited if grown commercially," he said. Bogaers said cannabis cloth is becoming increasingly popular in Australia, Britain and the United States for jeans and tops. He said the use of oil from the plant's seeds in cosmetics, shampoo and even as a fuel was becoming popular. Slaam, which set up two years ago with a cannabis leaf motif on its clothing, has an annual turnover of A$2 million (US$1.5 million) and now exports to Japan and New Zealand. Bogaers said Slaam imports its cannabis cloth from Hungary and India with cloth also available from Afghanistan and China, but is looking at investing in a plantation in Vietnam. "We use the fact it's made of cannabis as a marketing ploy," Bogaers said, "and people come and smell it and taste it. "But really it's just another fabric but stronger and about 15 percent more expensive than cotton." REUTER APn 02/23/95 Hero Award By SCOTT BEKKER Associated Press Writer KANSAS CITY, Mo. (AP) -- A teen-ager who rescued three people from a burning house will receive a national bravery award despite his drug arrest, the Justice Department said Thursday. "If I didn't get it, I'm still going to live my life," 16-year-old Mychael Ramsey said after learning that he will receive the 1993 Young American Medal for Bravery. Friends got the news before noon and finally found Ramsey, covered in white paint from his painting job, late in the afternoon. The Justice Department notified him early this year that he'd been chosen to receive the medal, but reversed that decision after a reporter asked about the time he was arrested on a marijuana charge. Since then, program staff decided Ramsey should be honored after all, spokeswoman Anne Voigt said. "The only criteria for the award is the act of bravery itself," Voigt said. The program was established by Congress in 1950 to recognize young people for bravery and public service. No date has been set for the awards ceremony in Washington. On Dec. 12, 1993, Ramsey and his friends were driving to the store when they noticed a burning house. Boosted up by a friend, Ramsey broke a window with his hand, climbed inside and helped an 83-year-old woman and her 67-year-old brother to safety, then returned to lead the woman's retarded daughter out. He spent several hours in a hospital recovering from smoke inhalation. Etta McKenzie, the insurance agent for the fire victims, searched for Ramsey to thank him. She found that his father was in prison, his mother was unwilling to have the teen-ager in her life, and he was living with 10 other people in a two-bedroom house owned by his grandparents. McKenzie started a trust fund for Ramsey and nominated him for several awards, including the Young American Medal. She said she told the Justice Department about the "very minor misdemeanor marijuana charge" last November. "I'm just pleased as I could be. I'm glad that it's over," McKenzie said. AAP 02/26/95 WOODCHIP PROTESTS ATTRACT 8,000 By Peter Krupka of AAP ADELAIDE, Feb 26 AAP - More than 8,000 people rallied in Adelaide, Brisbane and Canberra this weekend to protest the federal government's decision to wooodchip Australia's native forests. Adelaide led the charge with 5,000 people rallying from the steps of the state Parliament House today against the decision by Prime Minister Paul Keating's government last December to renew 11 woodchip export licences. Rally organiser Jo De Silva said it was the largest environmental rally seen in Adelaide in the past 10 years, adding that the turnout was even more impressive considering South Australia had no native forest. "South Australia has no native forest left, but we are clearly deeply concerned about the destruction of Australia's native forests," Ms De Silva said. "We demand that the Keating government stands up to the woodchip multinationals and starts listening to the Australian public." SA Democrat leader Mike Elliott said woodchipping needed to stop and insisted the practice woud become obsolete as the use of cannabis hemp fibre and material from renewable pine forets became more available. "South Australia can quite rapidly replace the need for any old growth timber by the use of timber from our own renewable pine forest and hemp for pulp fibre needs," Mr Elliott said. "Hemp, trial plantings of which will begin this year for commercial uses, offers a sustainable and environmentally sensible replacement as a source of fibre for paper making." Queensland Premier Wayne Goss echoed the sentiments and revealed his government had a policy against allocating or approving woodchip licences for native forests. "Unlike the other states, Queensland will not allocate woodchip licences in respect of native forests," Mr Goss said. "We hope to see any woodchipping that is done in Australia moved progressively to plantations and that's what's happening in the new Queensland mill that's opening tomorrow. Not out of native forests, out of plantations." The new woodchip mill, in the Wide Bay area, would use plantation wood in its operations. Mr Goss' comments followed a rally of about 2,000 woodchipping protesters in Brisbane yesterday. Wilderness Society national campaign director Kevin Parker said the granting of woodchipping licences in Queensland would see the production of more than 140,000 tonnes of woodchips from forests in the state's south-east. In Canberra about 1,500 people marched from old parliament house to the forecourt of the new Parliament House today as part of the on-going protests against woodchipping from native forests. The rally, organised by the Wilderness Society, was addressed by several speakers including New South Wales Democrat MP Richard Jones and the Green candidate for next month's Canberra by-election, James Warden. Entertainment was also provided by Australian musician John Williamson. circa 03/01/95 [untitled - Willie Nelson Testifies] WACO, Texas (AP) -- Willie Nelson passed up performing at the Grammys for something more precious than an award: his legal rights. Nelson testified Wednesday in a hearing to suppress evidence against him in a misdemeanor marijuana possession case. Nelson contends the evidence was seized in an illegal search of his car. "I think it was very important to be here today because it is becoming apparent in this country that we are losing our rights one after another," Nelson said after the hearing. The judge agreed to study the issue. If convicted, Nelson could be sentenced to six months in jail and fined $2,000. Nelson had been scheduled to perform "Moonlight Becomes You," the title song of his Grammy-nominated album, during the awards presentation Wednesday night. UPsw 03/01/95 Willie Nelson fights charge WACO, Texas, March 1 (UPI) -- Country singer Willie Nelson went to court Wednesday to fight a marijuana charge. Nelson attorney Ron Moody said he wants to supress evidence in the case because the officers did not have probable cause to search his client's car when they found him parked along Interstate 35 near Waco. County Court at Law Judge Mike Gassoway did not say when he would rule on the motions made at the pre-trial hearing. Nelson was arrested May 10, 1994 by Hewitt police officers who found him sleeping in the car. They checked the car and arrested him after finding the alleged marijuana cigarette in the ashtray. Moody said Nelson appeared in court to refute testimony by an arresting officer that he was seen putting the cigarette in a leather bag. The arresting officer, who no longer works for the Hewitt police, did not testify at the hearing, but another officer at the scene did. UPn 03/01/95 Inmates, guards charged with drug smuggling ALLENTOWN, Pa., March 1 (UPI) -- Four former inmates and two guards were among eight people charged Wednesday with smuggling drugs into the Lehigh County Prison in Allentown, Pa. A federal indictment alleges that the girlfriends of two inmates helped smuggle nearly 100 pounds of cocaine and marijuana into the prison over a three-year period ending in early 1994. Connell McGeehan, agent-in-charge at the federal Drug Enforcement Administration office in Allentown, said the operation was headed by a father and son inmate team who sold the drugs to fellow convicts. McGeehan said two women delivered some of the drugs to Charles Riddick, 45, and his son, Charles Jr., 26, during visits to the prison. The women, Thersa Cordero and Shannon Sicher, were also named in the indictment. Authorities said the two guards, Daniel Blount, 29, and Joseph Torok, 30, also delivered drugs to inmates. The indictment also charged two other inmates, Ronald Watts, 25, and Douglas Krause, 28, with participating in the smuggling operation. McGeehan estimated that more than 33 pounds of cocaine and 67 pounds of marijuana were smuggled into the prison. Charles Riddick Senior was also charged with selling homemade knives known as "shanks," to his drug customers. "The guys he sold the drugs to needed protection from other inmates, " McGeehan said. If convicted, all eight suspects could face maximum life prison sentences. APn 03/01/95 Computer Goof By RICHARD CARELLI Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- Unlawful arrests based on computer errors made by court employees don't always require throwing out evidence seized afterwards, the Supreme Court ruled today. In an Arizona case pitting computer-age police work against privacy rights, the court expanded just a bit a "good-faith" exception to its rule excluding illegally seized evidence. The 7-2 decision means Arizona prosecutors may use as evidence the marijuana seized from Isaac Evans' car after the Phoenix man was arrested because a police computer wrongly listed an outstanding warrant against him. Evans' 1991 arrest had been based on a computer record that showed a warrant for his arrest over some traffic citations. In fact, the warrant had been dropped 17 days earlier. The Arizona Supreme Court had ruled that the seized marijuana could not be used as trial evidence against Evans. The state court never determined, however, whether police officers or court employees were responsible for the outdated computer information. "There is no basis for believing that application of the exclusionary rule in these circumstances will have a significant effect on court employees responsible for informing police that a warrant has been quashed," Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist wrote for the court. "Because court clerks are not adjuncts to the law enforcement team engaged in ... ferreting out crime, they have no stake in the outcome of particular criminal prosecutions," Rehnquist said. "The threat of exclusion of evidence could not be expected to deter such individuals from failing to inform police officials that a warrant has been quashed." In a concurring opinion, Justice Sandra Day O'Connor emphasized for herself and Justices David H. Souter and Stephen G. Breyer that the ruling does not mean police always can rely on a computerized system that "routinely leads to false arrests." "In recent years, we have witnessed the advent of powerful, computer-based recordkeeping systems that facilitate arrests in ways that have never before been possible," O'Connor said. "The police, of course, are entitled to enjoy the substantial advantages this technology confers," she said. "They may not, however, rely on it blindly. With the benefits ... comes the burden of corresponding constitutional responsibilities." Justices John Paul Stevens and Ruth Bader Ginsburg dissented, saying the court lacked the authority to overturn the Arizona Supreme Court ruling because it had been based on state, not federal, constitutional law. The case is Arizona vs. Evans, 93-1660. RTf 03/02/95 "Fake" pot helps multiple sclerosis sufferers (Release at 2359 GMT Thursday, March 2) LONDON, March 3 (Reuter) - A synthetic drug that mimics the effects of cannabis could relieve some of the pain and other symptoms of multiple sclerosis, British researchers reported on Friday. The drug, nabilone, helped relieve the pain from muscle spasms, the annoying need to urinate frequently at night, and promoted a general sense of well-being in one patient, they reported in the Lancet medical journal. Dr Christopher Martyn and colleagues tested a patient who had asked for the drug because he knew it acted like cannabis. "After reading accounts in the press that smoking cannabis had improved the symptoms of other patients with multiple sclerosis, a 45-year-old man with multiple sclerosis persuaded his general practitioner to prescribe nabilone," they wrote. The patient reported such an improvement that Martyn and his colleague tried more tests to rule out the possibility of a placebo effect -- which would mean the patient got better because he expected to. He passed. "Our experience with this patient suggests that synthetic cannabinoids might be of value in the treatment of spasticity and that a randomised controlled trial that included objective measurement of muscle tone would be worthwhile," they wrote. Cannabis was used to treat pain and other ailments for more than 5,000 years before modern governments banned it as an illegal drug. Queen Victoria was even reported to have used it. Advocates of re-legalising it for therapeutic uses say it alleviates symptoms of cancer, glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and other illnesses. Nabilone, the synthetic version, is normally prescribed to cancer patients to help nausea from chemotherapy. AAP 03/02/95 NOVEL SOLUTION TO ABORIGINAL ALCOHOLISM: LET THEM SMOKE By Kevin Ricketts of AAP LISMORE, NSW, March 2 AAP - A self-confessed cannabis user and some-time dealer said he had a deal with a senior Tenterfield policeman allowing the dealer to sell cannabis to Aborigines in the town. Sydney "Jim" Hall, giving evidence to the NSW Police Royal Commission sitting in Lismore, said Senior Sergeant David King was concerned about the drunken behaviour of some of Mr Hall's friends. "He said beer was causing most of the trouble around town. I told him that it was my Aboriginal friends who were doing most of the drinking and fighting and if they (the police) allowed them to smoke pot, that would put a stop to the trouble," Mr Hall said. "He said: 'I'll leave you to do your thing as long as it stays quiet.' "He did leave us alone, except for the raid one year later." Mr Hall, 35, also proved himself an able barrack room lawyer. When another lawyer acting for the Police Services' interests then put to him: "So, you have no respect for the laws of the state?" he retorted, "I believe in most laws of the state - I don't believe in that one." Barrister: "So you think Aborigines can be weaned from alcohol by cannabis?" Mr Hall: "I think it's far more effective." Barrister Robert Sutherland, who is representing Sen Sgt King, and other barristers acting for NSW Police Service interests, have painted Sen Sgt King as a church-going family man of forceful moral views - even as "the sheriff" of Tenterfield - who caused the local arrest rate to rise substantially. But the man who lost out to Sgt King as Officer-in-Charge of Tenterfield, Sen Sgt Terrence "Peter" Lewis, has given evidence showing a more sinister picture of a man who was dictatorial, had influence in the Police Service hierarchy and held the threat of "the green form" - a transfer out of Tenterfield - over any dissenting staff. "I remained a mushroom," Sen Sgt Lewis told the Royal Commission when asked why he had not reported alleged wrongdoing by Sgt King earlier. AAP kr/rmg/srw RTw 03/03/95 Dutch police make record marijuana haul AMSTERDAM, March (Reuter) - Dutch police said on Friday they had seized 17 tonnes of marijuana and arrested 22 suspects in the biggest seizure of the drug made in the Netherlands. "It's the dream of every policeman to make a haul like this," said Frederik Jansen, chief of the organised crime division in Enschede, where the drugs were found. He said the drugs were seized from two containers late on Thursday after 200 police raided 27 locations in Enschede, in the northwestern Netherlands. Police said they believed the drugs were destined for Germany. REUTER UPwe 03/09/95 Nancy Reagan laments lack of leadership By BRYAN SIERRA WASHINGTON, March 9 (UPI) -- Former first lady Nancy Reagan returned to Washington Thursday to criticize a lack of national leadership in the war on drugs and call for a renewal of the "Just Say No" campaign she began more than a decade ago. Reagan was lavished with praise by the Republican-led House subcommittee as she arrived to testify about the Clinton administration's drug policy. The chairman of the Government Reform and Oversight subcommittee, Rep. William Zeliff, R-N.H., called her "truly one of a kind." The former first lady, wearing a tan plaid suit, said she agreed to testify before the committee because she was concerned that the nation is "forgetting how endangered our children are by drugs." "I decided to speak today only after much soul-searching," Reagan said. Citing the disclosure that her husband, former President Ronald Reagan, is suffering from Alzheimer's disease, she said: "As you can imagine, I have very pressing concerns keeping me busy in California right now, and I do not like to be away for long. "I have come because my heart pulls me here and because my husband and everything he stands for calls me to be here," she said. Reagan, who championed the "Just Say No" drug prevention campaign during the Reagan administration, said she was "disappointed" that the gains made during the 1980s were showing signs of faltering. "I'm worried for the first time in many years tolerance for drugs and the mistaken perception that 'everyone is doing it' is creeping back into our national mentality," she said. "How could we have forgotten so quickly?" Reagan asked. "Why is it we no longer hear the drumbeat of condemnation against drugs coming from our leaders and our culture?" While never mentioning President Clinton by name, Reagan said current drug policy focuses too much on treatment and not enough on prevention. "The real solution is to dry up the demand, and that can only come through education and strong moral leadership," she said. "Where has it gone?" she asked. "It seems as though this country has lost its drive to keep the drug issue -- and especially drug prevention -- in the national spotlight. Today, the anti-drug message just seems to be fading away." But the ranking Democrat on the subcommittee, Rep. Karen Thurman, D- Fla., defended the Clinton administration's record and said the new, Republican-led Congress was responsible for not following through on Reagan's legacy. "The facts show that President Clinton has been in the forefront on this issue," she said. "He has requested a record $14.6 billion to combat drugs." But the House, Thurman said, is failing to live up to its commitment to the war on drugs. "The Appropriations Committee has recently zeroed out all funds for school-based drug programs, including the Drug Free Schools Program, which started during President Reagan's administration in 1987," she said. At the White House, chief of staff Leon Panetta agreed, saying, "I think we've got a record that the administration is proud of." "I think what the Republicans need to do is to tell us how they can criticize us on one hand for our drug program, and at the very same time propose to eliminate the drug-free schools program which affects 94 percent of the school districts in this country and is aimed at trying to teach and counsel kids to avoid drugs," said Panetta. "That's what Mrs. Reagan has been fighting for most of her life. I would hope that she would equally criticize the Republicans for what they're proposing." Another Democrat on the panel, Rep. Cardiss Collins of Illinois, said that efforts such as the "Just Say No" campaign needed to be backed up by tough legislative action. But Reagan defended her campaign, and said it was never meant as the only weapon in her husband's anti-drug efforts. "Some critics have said that 'Just Say No' is an oversimplification, " she said. "Well of course it is, that's what made it appealing to children, that's what made it effective." But she said it was not the total answer, and was never meant to be. Reagan said the catch phrase "Just Say No" came out a conversation she had with a young girl. "The 'Just Say No' phrase grew out of one child's question to me on how to respond when someone offers you drugs," she said. "I answered 'just say no,' and it became, in many ways, a rallying point for the prevention effort." In closing, Reagan said she is often asked what she misses most about her eight years in the White House. "In retrospect, I think what I miss most is the sense of common national purpose that so many of us felt as we tried to protect the children," she said. After her testimony, Reagan met briefly at Senate Republican leader Bob Dole's office with Dole, Senate Republican Whip Trent Lott, House Speaker Newt Gingrich and House Republican leader Dick Armey. APn 03/13/95 Israel-Cannabis JERUSALEM (AP) -- A panel of experts on Monday recommended that Israel's parliament ease laws against the use of marijuana and hashish. The report, commissioned by parliament's Committee Against Drugs, recommended not prosecuting anyone possessing less than 30 grams of cannabis-based drugs. But the panel stopped short of endorsing legalization, saying the public would oppose such a move. The report reflects the growing debate over illegal drug use in Israel, which is growing, although it is less widespread than in the West. Panel member Shlomo Sandak, who heads the Marijuana Legalization Association, called the report "a big step forward toward legalization." Moshe Levy, a former military chief and leading activist against drug use, argued that users of hashish and marijuana should be punished since more than a quarter go on to more damaging substance abuse. "We are sending a mixed message to our youth," Levy told Israel Radio. RTw 03/16/95 Cambodia cracks down on marijuana use PHNOM PENH, March 16 (Reuter) - The seizure of more than one tonne of marijuana marks the start of a crackdown on the illegal sale and possession of the drug, the head of Phnom Penh's anti-narcotics police said on Thursday. "We've confiscated more than one tonne of marijuana from markets in Phnom Penh and it will be burnt within the next 10 days," said Heng Pao. Pao said using or selling marijuana violated a law based on a former United Nations anti-drugs regulation. Cambodia does not have a hard drug problem and until recently marijuana was openly sold in markets in the traditional medicine section, along with antler horn. Marijuana is used by many elderly Khmer for sleep disorders and as a food additive. Pao said smugglers or others caught in possession faced from five to 15 years in prison if convicted. However, he said Cambodians using marijuana as a traditional medicine would not be prosecuted but would be counselled on its dangers. REUTER APn 03/17/95 FBI Abroad By MARCY GORDON Associated Press Writer WASHINGTON (AP) -- A new FBI training academy in Budapest, Hungary, and a proposed U.S. law enforcement operation in Beijing are drawing the ire of Sen. Ernest Hollings, D-S.C. At a hearing Thursday on the FBI and Drug Enforcement Administration budgets, Hollings said he was concerned that the two agencies' new foreign programs could divert needed resources from domestic law enforcement. "This bothers me," Hollings, senior Democrat on the Senate Appropriations subcommittee with jurisdiction over the two agencies, told FBI Director Louis Freeh. "I need more DEA agents down here on 14th Street. I need more FBI agents" in domestic training programs. "I've got a grave misgiving about this." Hollings said he was disturbed, among other things, about the Clinton administration's budget request of $2 million for the next fiscal year for the FBI's international training academy in Budapest, which is expected to begin operations next month. The academy grew out of Freeh's 10-day trip to Russia and Eastern Europe last summer, an unprecedented visit to the region by an American FBI chief. The trip's aim was to establish ways for U.S. and Eastern European law enforcement agencies to work more closely to combat international organized crime, drug smuggling, money laundering, hate crimes and trafficking in radioactive materials. Freeh opened an FBI office in Moscow on that tour. "The wave of crime coming out of Moscow is not affecting Muscovites only," Freeh told Hollings. He said the Moscow office, which cost about $1 million to set up, already has uncovered a computerized embezzlement scheme that drained more than $8 million from a U.S. bank. Freeh said international crime is a major issue facing law enforcement in the 1990s and that FBI investment in foreign training would benefit the United States. The training is needed, he said, to provide partners for U.S. law enforcement's efforts to stop the spread of emerging Eastern European and Russian organized crime groups in America. The FBI also is seeking $420,000 in new funding for establishing a joint FBI-DEA operation in Beijing to combat Asian organized crime. Hollings, asking DEA Administrator Thomas Constantine about heroin trafficking arrests in Southeast Asia, said, "We've been through this. We've been through burning the poppy fields. ... We need all the help we can get here" in the United States. The FBI's total budget request for 1996 is $2.35 billion, up about $150 million from this year. The DEA is seeking $810 million, an increase of $16.6 million. Sen. Phil Gramm, R-Texas, subcommittee's chairman, said he supports an administration proposal to impose a surcharge on civil money penalties and criminal fines. "I'm a strong supporter of fining people who violate the law," he said. AAP 03/17/95 NSW: CANNABIS DAY TOMORROW SYDNEY, March 17 AAP - A national day of action will be held tomorrow in support of decriminalising cannabis. In Sydney, supporters of the plant will rally outside parliament house to protest against anti-cannabis laws. The Sydney HEMP Embassy will display uses of the plant, which includes creating fibre and paper as well as a narcotic relaxant, at a noon ceremony. Organisers said rallies would be held around the country to expose what they claim was the "fallacy of prohibition". Prohibition End and the NIMBIN HEMP Embassy are fielding candidates for the NSW lower house at the March 25 election. Sydney HEMP Embassy spokesman Kal Gulson said tonight the war on drugs had been lost. "It is time for retreat. In 70 years the war has claimed freedom of choice, clean soil, rivers and the native forests," he said. "A new strategy is required. End prohibition now." AAP ch/br AAP 03/18/95 PRISON PSYCHOLOGIST ON DRUGS CHARGES BRISBANE, March 18 AAP - A prison psychologist appeared in the Brisbane Magistrates Court yesterday on drugs charges, The Courier-Mail newspaper reported today. The paper said Michael William Lannen, 48, of the southside Brisbane suburb of Graceville, was charged with supplying a dangerous drug, possession of a dangerous drug, producing a dangerous drug and possession of a drug utensil. It was alleged that he supplied cannabis to a prison farm inmate on February 9 this year, the paper said. The Courier-Mail said the court was told that Lannen would plead not guilty. He was allowed bail to appear again in the Brisbane Magistrates Court on April 19. AAP rad/mg APn 03/19/95 Pot-South America By The Associated Press Laws on possessing marijuana for personal use in South America: ------ ARGENTINA: No jail or fine for possession; users usually must undergo court-supervised rehabilitation. ------ BOLIVIA: Possession illegal. No move to decriminalize. ------ BRAZIL: Possession illegal. Attorney general proposes to end jail and fines, substituting mandatory rehabilitation for users. ------ CHILE: Possession illegal. Weak support for decriminalizing, but no formal proposal to change law. ------ COLOMBIA: Possession of small quantities of all drugs legal; permitted "personal dose" for marijuana is 20 grams. ------ ECUADOR: Possession illegal. No move to decriminalize. ------ PARAGUAY: Possession illegal. No move to decriminalize. ------ PERU: Possession of small amounts legal; judges decide what constitutes "personal" amount. ------ URUGUAY: Possession for personal use not penalized; law does not specify quantity for "personal" amount. ------ VENEZUELA: Possession of up to 20 grams not punished; users must go through drug treatment program. End Adv for Sunday March 19 APn 03/19/95 Pot-Ayahuasca Tea RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil (AP) -- Supporters of legislation to decriminalize the use of marijuana cite the precedent of ayahuasca tea. Banned for years as a dangerous hallucinogen, ayahuasca proved too deeply rooted in Brazilian religious rituals to eradicate. The government removed it from a list of illegal drugs in 1987 and now allows its use in ceremonies. The bitter tea, brewed from a jungle vine and a leaf, has been used for centuries by Amazonian Indians to induce visions and contact the dead. They call it the "wine of the soul" and the "medicine of medicines." Rubber tappers in the Amazon learned about it and used the drink in religious cults that have spread across Brazil. One sect, the Cult of the Holy Daime, mixed Indian beliefs with Roman Catholicism. Founded in 1930, Daime has 14 temples and 2,000 followers in Brazil and abroad. Even larger is the Vegetable Union, with more than 7,000 members. The British rock star Sting took part in rituals earlier this year at the sect's main temple in Brasilia, the national capital. Domingos Bernardo, vice president of the National Drug Council, said the government legalized ayahuasca because users showed "positive participation in society as citizens." The U.S. government bans the tea. End Adv for Sunday March 19 APn 03/19/95 Brazil and Pot By GARY RICHMAN Associated Press Writer RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil (AP) -- From the Amazon jungle to Ipanema beach, marijuana is part of a daily routine for many Brazilians. Routine, but illegal. Now, for the first time, the country is seriously discussing a proposal to end jail time and fines for the use and possession of the drug. Users would instead have to go through mandatory drug treatment. Trafficking would remain a crime. Congress is scheduled to vote on decriminalization by July. Attorney General Nelson Jobim is lobbying for the bill. "It's absurd," to put users in jail, Jobim said in an interview. "The drug user must be helped and not persecuted as a criminal." Under current law, marijuana users can be sentenced to 2 to 3 years in prison for possessing as little as 20 grams of marijuana. Trafficking carries a penalty of 3 to 15 years in prison. Three South American nations -- Argentina, Uruguay and Venezuela -- already have systems similar to the one proposed by Jobim, while the possession of small amounts of marijuana is completely legal in Colombia and Peru. But events in Brazil are closely watched because it is the continent's biggest and most populous country. When Jobim called for a national debate on drugs, Brazilians responded immediately. Decriminalization was a cover story for Veja, the nation's most widely read newsweekly, and the idea has been discussed in depth on all five commercial television networks. It even was endorsed by Cardinal Lucas Moreira Neves, the conservative Roman Catholic archbishop of Salvador and primate of Brazil. "Europe and the United States distinguish between the trafficker and the user," Neves said in an interview with the newspaper Folha de Sao Paulo. "Users need therapy and treatment." The attorney general has a similar view. "What Jobim envisions is the system in some American states where the consumer, when caught for drug possession, is given a chance to go to public health classes and to be rehabilitated, if he's an addict," said his press secretary, Paulo Felix. For many Brazilians, the government is simply recognizing a practice that is too widespread to be suppressed. On a summer afternoon along Rio's fashionable Ipanema beach, dozens of beachgoers openly light up cigar-sized "baseados." A few yards away, police officers stroll by, ignoring the haze of sweet-smelling smoke. Marijuana is a fixture among reggae followers in the northeastern city of Salvador, the center of Afro-Brazilian culture. For some Amazonian Indians, it is a sacred plant. And for many residents of the northern backwoods, marijuana is just another leaf to smoke. "For the first time, Brazil is looking at drug use realistically," said Domingos Bernardo, vice president of the government's National Drug Council. Most of Brazil's marijuana comes from the arid northeastern states of Bahia, Pernambuco and Piaui or from neighboring Paraguay. For many farmers, the plant is a lifesaver. "Marijuana plantations keep many rural farmers alive," said Rio congressman Fernando Gabeira, a member of the tiny Green Party. "It pays more than other crops, and big landowners quietly support decriminalization because of the economics involved." Gabeira, a former guerrilla and political exile, ran on a campaign to legalize "light" drugs -- marijuana and hashish. But the first step is decriminalization, he said. "It's totally absurd that a foreign tourist caught with one joint is deported from the country and never allowed to come back," he said. Experts say Brazil's "problem" drug is cocaine, not marijuana. The Brazilian Heart Association recently warned that a rising number of teen-agers and young adults are dying of heart attacks related to cocaine use. A public health study says 25 percent of new AIDS cases stem from injecting cocaine. Cocaine, which comes from neighboring Bolivia, Peru and Colombia, also is the focus of widespread violence. With cocaine selling for about $20 a gram -- more than 150 times what marijuana brings -- rival drug lords in Rio battle for turf and distribution rights. Last year, gang shootouts got so bad the army was called in to combat the drug violence. "It's easier to find cocaine for sale than grass," said a Brazilian marijuana user, who agreed to speak on condition he not to be identified. "People who only smoke grass take care not to mix with cocaine users." The idea of decriminalizing marijuana has its foes, of course. "I'll fight to the end to prevent decriminalizing any drugs," said Alberto Corazza, chief of the Narcotics Investigation Department in Sao Paulo. "It's asking for trouble, and will just make our job harder." For Corazza, marijuana is the foot in the door that can lead to the use of more dangerous drugs and other crimes. "It's all or nothing," he said. "If you let people smoke grass, you're giving them an open invitation to experiment hard drugs." President Fernando Henrique Cardoso has not said whether he would sign a decriminalization bill. But he is no stranger to the issue. When he was running for mayor of Sao Paulo in 1985, Cardoso admitted he once had smoked marijuana. Many experts think that admission led to his narrow loss in the election. APn 03/21/95 Federal Execution By JAY REEVES Associated Press Writer BIRMINGHAM, Ala. (AP) -- A judge Tuesday blocked the execution of a drug kingpin nine days before he was to become the first person put to death by the U.S. government since 1963. U.S. District Judge James H. Hancock ruled additional time was needed to consider issues raised by David Ronald Chandler. Defense attorney Natasha Zalkins said new and "very sensitive" evidence had come to light that proved Chandler's innocence. Hancock granted a defense request to seal the evidence from public view. Chandler, 42, of Piedmont, had been scheduled to die by injection March 30 at the federal prison in Terre Haute, Ind., for the 1990 contract murder of Marlin Earl Shuler, a member of his marijuana ring who had become an informant. The triggerman, Charles Ray Jarrell, who was promised $500 but never got the money, testified against Chandler and got 25 years in prison. Chandler was the first person sentenced under a 1988 anti-drug law that allows the death penalty for killings associated with a criminal enterprise. Five others have since been sentenced to death under the law. On appeal, Chandler argued that the law is unconstitutional and that prosecutors withheld evidence and knowingly used false testimony. The last civilian executed by the federal government was Victor Feuger, hanged in Iowa in 1963 for kidnapping and murder. The last military prisoner put to death was John Bennett, hanged at Leavenworth in 1961. AAP 03/22/95 PRO MARIJUANA ACTIVIST FAILS TO CONVERT APPEAL COURT BRISBANE, March 22 AAP - A pro-marijuana activist has failed in his attempt to have the Court of Appeal overturn Queensland's cannabis laws. Roger Gregory Brand, a 38-year-old public servant, of Bardon in north-western Brisbane, was fined $300 after pleading not guilty in the Brisbane Magistrates Court last December to possession of cannabis. Brand admitted he had been smoking a joint during a demonstration outside parliament house last October, but maintained cannabis was not a dangerous drug and should not be listed as such under the Drugs Misuse Act. He was also appealing against the fine saying it was excessive. Chief Justice John Macrossan told Brand the court had no power to change the law and was not about to enter into a discussion on the philosophical basis for it. "You say the law should be changed, but we can't change the law, so we can't go far in this argument," Justice Macrossan said. Dismissing the appeal after the 10 minute hearing, Court of Appeal president, Justice Tony Fitzgerald, told Brand he was only using the court as a forum to promote his reasons for his views on marijuana. AAP smk/br APn 03/22/95 Cannabis Club By MICHELLE LOCKE Associated Press Writer SAN FRANCISCO (AP) -- Behind the nondescript door is no ordinary smoky dive. If your nose doesn't detect the sweet smell of marijuana, the sign behind the bar says it all: "Thank you for pot smoking." At the San Francisco Cannabis Buyer's Club, AIDS, cancer and glaucoma patients come to buy and smoke the illegal weed they say is one of the few things that give them relief. "This is about love," said Dennis Peron, who founded the club after his partner died of AIDS in 1990. "People in the autumn, in the sunset of their lives, have a right to any medicine that helps them feel better." Although Peron knows he is risking arrest, the 3,200-member club has yet to be busted. In 1992, the city Board of Supervisors, in a unanimous resolution signed by Mayor Frank Jordan, ordered police and the district attorney to make enforcing laws against marijuana as medicine their lowest priority. "The mayor supports medicinal use of marijuana as long as it's under the supervision of a doctor," said Jordan spokeswoman Meredith Halpern. To join the club, you have to produce a photo ID and a doctor's letter certifying a condition that could be alleviated by pot. Members are issued a prosaic-looking membership card (and if you lose it twice, you're out.) The club, on the second story of a drab building near the Castro, San Francisco's mostly gay district, buys in bulk and sells at a small markup. Since the drug is purchased underground, it's more expensive than growing your own, and members are charged $5 to $25 a gram. But Peron said that's about 50 percent cheaper than street prices. Similar clubs have been formed in major U.S. cities in recent years, said Bob Randall of the Washington-based Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics. But he wouldn't say where or how many, because the clubs are illegal. On a recent morning, the clientele at the nonprofit San Francisco Cannabis Buyer's Club reflected the democratizing power of disease. Old, young, black, brown, white, well-dressed and grungy were all represented in the 50 to 100 people sitting at small tables or lounging on couches as candles glowed dimly through the haze and a stereo pounded out '70s hits. Hazel, a 75-year-old retired office manager, said she takes a couple of tokes a day, just enough to relieve the pressure in her eyes from glaucoma but not so much that she gets that "very uncomfortable" feeling of being high. Michael, who has Hodgkin's disease, stops by every two weeks for the only cure he's found for the waves of nausea that follow his chemotherapy. Bob, a 36-year-old AIDS patient whose face is covered with the dark lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma, said he comes to the club for the marijuana that keeps his appetite up and the support that boosts his spirit. "I love the interaction. I draw from it. I've met some of my best friends now from this club," he said. "A lot of times, you can't turn things off. It's like I have all these problems and I have to deal with them all the time. With marijuana, I just kind of drift away. It's my only way to turn it off sometimes." At one counter, volunteers sold food made with pot for those who can't smoke, including brownies, cookies, spice cake and Merry Pills, high-grade marijuana soaked in olive oil and encapsulated. Security is tight. Two doormen guard the stairs leading to the club. Supporters of the club include Angela Alioto, a member of the Board of Supervisors whose husband died of cancer four years ago. "I think it is of utmost importance that people who are dying be able to get any kind of medication that makes even five minutes of their life better," she said. Advocates say marijuana eases nausea and loss of appetite caused by cancer and AIDS treatments, relieves muscle spasms in people with spinal cord injuries or multiple sclerosis and alleviates the pressure that blinds glaucoma sufferers. Opponents say those assertions are unverified. Last summer, the Clinton administration upheld the ban on the medicinal use of marijuana. In California, an effort to legalize such uses was vetoed in September by Gov. Pete Wilson. Randall, one of only eight people in the United States legally allowed to smoke marijuana, would rather see marijuana dispensed by prescription. "I appreciate the service that's being performed" by the marijuana clubs, he said. "But in terms of being a rational solution to a very serious medical problem, they aren't it." APn 03/22/95 People-Nelson AUSTIN, Texas (AP) -- You win some, you lose some. Just ask Willie Nelson. Less than a year after paying the bulk of a $9 million tax debt to the Internal Revenue Service, a smiling Nelson praised a judge who agreed that police had no business searching his gray Mercedes when they found him asleep alongside a highway in May. Nelson had pulled over and nodded off after a long night of poker with friends. Police found less than an ounce of marijuana in the car and charged him with misdemeanor possession. "If those guys had given me an option that I could have lived with, I might have just paid the fine and went on, but they didn't," Nelson said Wednesday. Instead, Nelson said, authorities wanted to give him six months probation, fine him and take his driver's license away. "All this for something I felt like was an illegal search and seizure, and I felt strongly enough that I wanted to take it to court," Nelson said. On Monday, McLennan County Court-at-Law Judge Michael Gassaway granted Nelson's motion to bar certain evidence from trial, including the marijuana and any statements Nelson made after the search. The state failed to establish probable cause for the search, Gassaway ruled. Prosecutor Alan Bennett said he was considering an appeal. RTna 03/22/95 Marijuana evidence thrown out in Nelson case WACO, Texas (Reuter) - A McClennan County judge has disallowed as evidence marijuana taken from Willie Nelson's car last May during an arrest of the country singer for possession of the drug. Court-at-law judge Mike Gassaway based his ruling, which was released Wednesday, to throw out the evidence on a March 1 pretrial hearing in which defense attorneys questioned the legality of the search of Nelson's Mercedes-Benz. Hewitt police officers had found Nelson asleep in his car along Interstate 35 near Waco early one morning last May. He told police he had pulled over on the side of the road to rest after a night of playing poker with friends, and admitted there was a small amount of marijuana in his car. The prosecution's case was complicated by the fact that the arresting officer, Mike Cooper, resigned from the Hewitt police department due to an unrelated matter after the Nelson incident. At the pretrial hearing in March, the back-up officer at the scene was called to testify instead of Cooper. But the judge apparently needed the testimony of the arresting officer because he wrote in the ruling, "The court has no proof of necessary probable cause relied upon by the arresting officer." Assistant District Attorney Alan Bennett said District Attorney John Segrest would make a decision in the next two weeks on whether to appeal the judge's ruling or to just drop the case. Nelson's lawyer was not immediately available for comment. RTw 03/23/95 Pizza man arrested for delivering marijuana HAMILTON, New Jersey, March 23 (Reuter) - Police arrested a New Jersey pizza delivery man for selling marijuana on his pizza runs. Ryan Kemble, 20, would have customers call his pizzeria and make a special order that was a code for the drug, police sergeant Michael Olesnevich said. Alerted by a tipster, police managed to buy marijuana from Kemble in the restaurant parking lot last Friday. Then they trailed Kemble and arrested him after he was done with his delivery route, because "we know what it's like to be waiting for that pizza to come," Olesnevich said. REUTER UPn 03/23/95 Pot charge against Nelson dropped WACO, Texas, March 23 (UPI) -- A county judge dismissed marijuana possession charges against Willie Nelson, ruling that the singer's May 1994 arrest in the small central Texas town of Hewitt was illegal. Saying "Don't do it in Hewitt," Nelson took the opportunity to call for the legalization of marijuana. "I think it should be taxed and regulated like your cigarettes," said Nelson, who for years has admitted being a regular marijuana user. Nelson was returning to Austin from a late-night poker game in Hillsboro last May when he pulled over to sleep on Interstate 35. He was arrested by Hewitt Police Sgt. Michael Cooper, who suspected marijuana was in Nelson's car when he peered through the window and saw a hand- rolled cigarette and some rolling papers. Judge Michael Gassaway ruled Wednesday there was insufficient evidence to justify a search of Nelson's car, a 1986 Mercedes, and ordered the pot charge dismissed. Cooper has since been fired from the Hewitt Police Department. "Willie's free," proclaimed Joe Turner, Nelson's lead attorney. Turner said there were discrepancies in the officer's version of where he found the marijuana, and that during the encounter, police twice switched off a microphone that was part of the patrol car's video recording system. "He was not a fan," Nelson said of the arresting officer. "I do think that once he found out who I was, he thought this might be good for his career." RTec 03/24/95 France seizes drugs to show borders still policed PARIS, March 24 (Reuter) - French customs officials said on Thursday they had seized more than three tonnes of cannabis resin concealed aboard a Dutch trawler and found by a sniffer dog called Haddock. The officials said the action was intended to demonstrate that Paris would remain vigilant policing its borders for illegal drug shipments after France and six other European nations drop internal border controls on Sunday. Officials said that 3,323 kg of cannabis resin was seized by customs officals on Wednesday during a search of the Dutch vessel Nicol at sea off northern France. After the drugs were detected, the boat was ordered into the port of Boulogne-sur-Mer. No arrests were reported. "This shows that we will be vigilant in monitoring our sea borders against illegal shipments of drugs and goods," a customs spokesman said. On Sunday, when the so-called Schengen treaty comes into effect, seven of the 15 European Union countries drop internal border controls with each other. The agreement was named after the Luxembourg town in which it was originally signed in 1985 by five countries -- Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France and Germany. Spain and Portugal signed up in 1992. Critics say the treaty will give free rein to organised crime bosses, drug barons and money launderers to travel at will among the signing nations. But supporters say it will help these countries to concentrate more effort on external EU borders. Officials say random identity checks are relatively useless in catching criminals compared to investigations. REUTER APn 03/25/95 Clinton-Drugs NEW YORK (AP) -- Gennifer Flowers knew Bill Clinton as an occasional marijuana smoker who carried his own joints and once talked about getting high on cocaine, according to excerpts from her new book in New York magazine. "By the way, he most certainly did inhale," Flowers writes in "Passion & Betrayal." When asked about the book Saturday, Clinton spokesman Mike McCurry said, "The White House is not going to comment on any cash-for-trash stories." Clinton denies Flowers' claim that they had a 12-year affair ending in 1989. The excerpts, in the magazine's April 3 issue, mostly focus on Clinton and drugs. "When he casually put his hand in his pants pocket and pulled out a joint one night, I was startled but kept silent," she wrote. "I thought how foolish it was of him to carry marijuana around, but it was typical of his bulletproof attitude." She also wrote that Clinton once told her, "I got so f----- up on cocaine at that party." As Arkansas governor, Clinton refused to block his brother Roger's arrest on drug charges. During the presidential campaign, he said he once tried marijuana but did not inhale. Flowers' book, published by Emery Dalton, is due out in late April. WP 03/26/95 Drug Cases Vs. Privacy Comes to High Court This Week By Joan Biskupic Washington Post Staff Writer A pressing constitutional question -- how far can government go to stop drug dealing without invading the privacy of individuals and their homes -- comes to the Supreme Court this week in two cases of nationwide interest. The first case, testing whether elementary school athletes in rural Oregon can be forced to submit to drug tests, reflects the contemporary dilemma of the nation's drug scourge. The second dispute, over whether police who have a search warrant need to knock and announce themselves, recalls the nation's common law history and the English rule that before the sheriff break into a home he "make request to open doors." The search case from Arkansas is more poignant in light of a Boston tragedy one year ago. The Rev. Accelynne Williams, a 75-year-old retired Methodist minister, died of heart failure after the police mistakenly forced their way into his apartment, threw him to the floor and handcuffed him. The police warrant was for another apartment. The court cases, to be argued Tuesday morning, provide the justices with an unusually straightforward test of the Fourth Amendment guarantee against unreasonable searches and seizures. Given the court's great latitude for police searches in the past 20 years, both cases could yield rulings allowing more intrusions on personal privacy in the name of stopping illegal drug use and other crimes. "These are not just cops-and-robbers types of encounters here," asserts Boston University law professor Tracey Maclin. "If the [challengers to government searches] lose, a lot of innocent people could be affected." Maclin referred to students who would be tested for drugs although they have done nothing to rouse suspicion and people whose residences police may mistakenly invade. He wrote a brief on behalf of the ACLU asking the court to require announced police entries. But Solicitor General Drew S. Days III, who is supporting both types of searches for of the Clinton administration, said mandatory urinalysis could deter drug abuse and an unannounced police entry can protect officers, prevent destruction of evidence and foil escape. When an officer approaches the home of a suspected drug trafficker, Days wrote, "There is a significant possibility that persons inside will be armed . . . and that the premises will have been fortified in anticipation of a police raid." The Fourth Amendment says the "right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated." The contemporary court has broadened the notion of a reasonable search, given police more leeway and prosecutors greater ability to use improperly seized evidence in court. Still, Eleni Constantine, counsel for the National Association of Attorneys General, cautioned that the new cases "may not be an easy victory for law enforcement" and the dominant conservative side. "There is a center to this court," she said, "and the liberal wing is feeling its oats." She noted that in two recent criminal law cases, the more liberal justices, John Paul Stevens, Stephen G. Breyer and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, were able to pick off the votes of Sandra Day O'Connor and David H. Souter. Schools nationwide are watching the dispute from Vernonia in northwest Oregon, which asks for the first time whether the drug testing of middle and high school student athletes who have not engaged in any suspicious behavior is constitutional. Three years ago, James Acton, then in seventh grade, was kept off a football team because his parents refused to sign a urinalysis consent form. "If the court ruled that [urinalysis] was permissible," said Larry Johnson, with the Virginia High School League in Charlottesville. "I think you'd see a lot of schools try to do it. Everybody realizes that drugs have spread to younger and younger kids." Vernonia school district officials said drug and alcohol abuse was rampant in their sports program and threatening student safety. In 1989, after drug education classes, an off-duty police officer and a drug-sniffing dog apparently failed to deter narcotics use, the district began testing of student athletes for marijuana, cocaine and amphetamines. Urine samples were collected from athletes at the start of each season and then at random intervals. Vernonia says the intrusion to students' reasonable expectations of privacy was minimal because students, and especially athletes, already are subject to substantial regulation. The district and its supporters rely on two lines of cases: one saying that school officials do not need a warrant to search a student because students have a lower expectation of privacy; the other allowing random drug testing when public safety is an issue. In 1989, the court allowed mandatory drug testing of certain U.S. Customs Service employees involved in drug interdiction or carrying firearms and, separately, upheld the testing of railroad workers after major accidents. "Why would you want to stop with the threat of a train wreck when you could solve problems in schools, too?" asked Timothy R. Volpert, the district's lawyer. In his court papers, Volpert stressed the isolation and way of life in the logging community of 3,000 residents northwest of Portland: "The town has few recreational opportunities or organized entertainment programs for elementary and high school students. As a result, community life in general centers around the schools, with interscholastic athletics playing a dominant role." Judy Acton, who refused to sign her son's urinalysis consent form, said in an interview, "We should be dealing with specific behavior rather than violating the privacy of all the kids who go out for sports." She said it should be a parental, not school, choice whether children are tested for drugs. "I don't have anything to hide, but I do have something to protect," she said. "We feel [forced drug testing] would violate our trust in our sons." James is now 15, and Judy and Wayne Acton also have a 13-year-old son, Simon. Judy Acton described the family, which has a modest business making silver crafts and jewelry, as tight-knit. The Actons' lawyer, Thomas M. Christ of the ACLU Foundation of Oregon, said Vernonia overstates its drug problem and that, irrespective of any crisis, "students do not surrender their expectations of privacy in their excretory functions when they attend school or go out for sports." The 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, whose 1994 ruling is now before the high court, said the drug testing policy violated both the Fourth Amendment and a similar privacy guarantee in the Oregon state constitution. The Arkansas search case began when police failed to knock before they entered the Malvern home of Sharlene Wilson on New Year's Eve 1992 and found drugs, records of narcotics sales, weapons and ammunition. Wilson, who is serving a 31-year prison sentence for delivery and possession of various drugs, argues that the common law requirement that an officer knock first is fundamental to the Fourth Amendment's protection against unreasonable searches. She tried unsuccessfully to keep the evidence found in the search out of her trial on the possession charges. The knock rule, while tempering the privacy intrusion, may stop an occupant from fighting an "unknown" intruder and prevent property damage. Some states already have allowed exceptions for drug cases, because of how easily suspects can destroy evidence and because of fears for police safety. The Arkansas Supreme Court upheld Wilson's conviction, saying that the Fourth Amendment does not require police to announce themselves. Arkansas officials say states should be left to decide how they can best guarantee that searches will be reasonable. Both cases of Vernonia School District v. Acton and Wilson v. Arkansas are likely to be decided by late June. RTna 03/27/95 No sunny forecast for world climate talks By Kevin Liffey BERLIN (Reuter) - If the spectacular highwire act intended to symbolize the balancing act facing world governments at this week's U.N. climate conference is anything to go by, the outlook is bleak. The high-wire artist lost hold of his balancing pole in high winds and rain, fell, and just managed to grab the wire to avoid tumbling 150 feet to his death on central Berlin's Alexanderplatz square. As over 1,000 delegates from at least 128 nations gather over the next 11 days to find ways to cut atmospheric pollution and avoid climatic disasters, environmentalists have been using vivid ways to bring the message home. Some are taking a practical approach, stressing the need for energy conservation to cut emissions from power stations by launching a campaign for the use of energy-saving lightbulbs. Others, fearing that radical climate change could eradicate entire habitats, are bringing together inhabitants of the Brazilian rainforest with inhabitants of the Spree forest wetland south of Berlin to compare experiences. Another group plans a lecture on using cannabis-hemp instead of trees for paper-making -- perhaps a hint in the direction of conference delegates who are likely to use up 1.5 million sheets of paper, albeit recycled, in formulating their positions. UPwe 03/28/95 Court hears school drug testing case By MICHAEL KIRKLAND WASHINGTON, March 28 (UPI) -- Drugs had become so pervasive in an Oregon school district, that the school board was forced to begin random drug testing of its athletes, an attorney told the Supreme Court in argument Tuesday. However, attorney Timothy Volpert said the testing did not constitutionally have to be limited to athletes -- who signed a consent form for urinalysis in order to participate in sports -- but could have been given to all of the students in the Vernonia, Ore., schools. The Vernonia school system is trying to save the random drug tests, which a federal appeals court said violated the Fourth Amendment's ban on unreasonable searches. Vernonia is a small logging community with about 3,000 residents, but what the school district claims happened to its children could be any parent's nightmare. The town had little trouble with drug use in the school system until the late 1980s, when teachers began to notice "a startling and progressive increase in students' use of drugs and alcohol," according to a brief filed with the Supreme Court. "...The glamorization and use of drugs and alcohol became more blatant" over time, the brief said. "Students boasted about drug use.. .There was an almost three-fold increase in classroom disruptions and disciplinary reports between 1986 and 1989...Athletes turned in classroom assignments which bragged about drug use." The school district board began random drug-testing athletes in the spring of 1989. The urine-analysis testing targeted use of amphetamines, marijuana, cocaine and LSD, and the urine sample was produced in the presence of a teacher. Not everyone in Vernonia agreed with the new program, however. Wayne and Judy Acton, representing their son James, then 12, filed suit three years ago in U.S. District Court in Portland, Ore., saying the program was a product of teacher hysteria. A U.S. District judge upheld the testing program, but a panel of the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals reversed last year, and the full appeals court refused to hear the case. The school district then asked the Supreme Court to reverse the lower court ruling. Tuesday, Justice David Souter asked Volpert whether the school district ever considered "a drug testing scheme based on reasonable suspicion" rather than randomness. Volpert said such a scheme was not considered, and argued that random testing had more of a "deterrent effect" and was "far less intrusive than fingering individual athletes" for testing because of their behavior. The attorney conceded that the random drug testing over four years produced only "two or three" positive results, but said that was part of the deterrent effect. Assistant to the U.S. Solicitor General Richard Seamon supported Volpert. Seamon said the random drug testing was justified in Vernonia "because of the rise of an apparent drug culture." Speaking for James Acton, who was present in the courtroom with several of his schoolmates, lawyer Thomas Christ told the justices that Vernonia could not justify its random testing under the guise of classroom order. "If that's the goal, you don't need urine testing to detect and punish disorderly conduct," Christ said. Justice Anthony Kennedy asked Christ to assume there was "a nationwide drug problem in the schools." Would that justify random drug testing, Kennedy asked. Christ said no, "you don't need drug testing to solve behavior problems." Justice Stephen Breyer questioned Christ about the intrusiveness of the testing. Men and boys "urinate in men's rooms all over the country, " Breyer said. "It isn't a tremendously private thing, is it?" "We all urinate, that has to be conceded," Christ replied, and referring to his own nervousness added, "In fact, I might do so here." But the lawyer said in Vernonia, drug testing "is compelled by the government...they're watching you." A decision in the case is expected sometime next fall. (No. 94-590, Vernonia School District 47J vs. Actons) APn 03/29/95 Jamaica-Ambassador's Son KINGSTON, Jamaica (AP) -- The son of Jamaica's ambassador to Washington and a friend were convicted Wednesday of trying to smuggle 100 pounds of marijuana into the United States in cans labeled as pineapple juice. Brian Bernal, 21, and his friend, 24-year-old Christopher Moore, were both sentenced to a year in jail. However, Magistrate Mahadev Dukharan released them on $15,151 bail each pending appeals -- a process that could take months. Bernal's parents, Richard and Margaret, were in the courtroom for the sentencing. Bernal and his brother, Daren, were arrested in April 1994 at the Kingston airport after police searched their luggage and found marijuana concealed in 96 cans labeled as juice. The brothers were traveling to Washington, where Brian is studying architecture at Howard University. Dukharan dismissed the case against Daren Bernal, now 17. Brian Bernal testified that Moore gave him two cartons containing the cans to take to Moore's sister in Washington. Both men denied knowing the cans contained marijuana. Last year, then-Foreign Minister Paul Robertson said the government had no plans to replace Ambassador Richard Bernal because of his son's troubles. UPn 03/30/95 FBI chief: U.S. not winning drug war WASHINGTON, March 30 (UPI) -- The United States is losing the war on drugs and international cooperation is the key to stopping more than 1, 100 metric tons of cocaine and heroin being produced in the world each year, FBI Director Louis Freeh said Thursday. A grim-faced Freeh appeared before a House crime subcommittee to outline the latest U.S. strategy to fight drugs and the violent crime associated with them. Of particular concern is the estimated 820 metric tons of cocaine and 314 tons of heroin produced each year, which U.S. officials say are the most prevalent drugs. At least an eighth of the world's cocaine production was seized in the United States last year. "There are no larger threats to our national security and the safety of the public than the flood of cocaine and heroin into this country, and the huge amount of crime caused by drugs," he said. "What is the status of this fight against drugs? Clearly, the nation is not winning," he said. "Further, we cannot by ourselves overwhelm the problem. It is one that is international in scope." Freeh said the FBI is opening foreign offices, including one in Moscow and one in Beijing, as part of an attempt to establish a "strong and effective presence overseas." He said the FBI is also working with foreign law enforcement agencies in joint investigations and exchanges of information, personnel and training. DEA Administrator Thomas Constantine echoed the FBI chief. "Any strategy designed to control our domestic drug problem is doomed to failure if we cannot also stem the tide of heroin and cocaine flooding across our borders at the direction of the Cali mafia (in Colombia) or the Burmese warlord Khan Sa," Constantine said. Constantine called the notorious Cali cartel "our No. 1 public enemy" which is receiving more and more help from Mexican traffickers. He estimated that three-fourths of the cocaine, a third of the heroin and a third of the marijuana entering the United States came over its southern border. The DEA plans to have more personnel assigned to Andean nations and to intensify efforts along the Mexican border. Constantine said those efforts must be accompanied by more aggressive action to cut drug use in the United States. Of particular concern, he said, was an increase last year in drug use among teens -- the first increase after 14-year decline, accompanied by significant increases in violent crimes committed by teens. The DEA chief predicted that the "echo of the baby boom" -- children whose parents were part of the post-World War II baby boom -- would show itself possibly in "another crime wave early in the next century" if drug trends are not reversed. He said that could hit by 2005, when the United States will have more teenagers than ever before with many approaching the 18-to 24-year-old age group -- traditionally the most violence-prone of all. PA 03/30/95 MAJOR PLEDGES TO PURSUE WAR ON DRUGS By Alison Little, Parliamentary Staff, PA News The Prime Minister today promised the Government would do all it could to help stamp out the trade in illegal drugs. Pressed at Commons question time to take tougher action against drug dealers, Mr Major said Leader of the House Tony Newton was preparing a comprehensive anti-drugs strategy. He declared: "There is no doubt about the danger of this particular trade, and we will do all we can, both domestically and internationally, to help stamp it out." He added: "The Government has already taken a number of initiatives in line with our European and other international partners." Mr Major was replying to Spencer Batiste, Tory MP for Elmet, who referred to reports "that in the Middle East seven drugs dealers were executed, while in Leeds a gang of drugs dealers burned down the house of a black policeman". Mr Batiste demanded: "Is it not time in this country, in our war against drugs dealers, that we treat them as the mass murderers which they are in fact?" The Prime Minister told him: "I believe everyone in this country would share the distaste for drug dealers that you refer to." PR 03/31/95 $1.1 MILLION CASH FOUND IN STORAGE LOCKER IN NEW JERSEY PHILADELPHIA, March 31 /PRNewswire/ -- Duffel bags containing more than $1.1 million in cash believed to be proceeds from an illegal drug operation have been recovered from a public storage locker in Sicklerville, NJ. Michael R. Stiles, U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, announced today that the cash was seized in connection with the arrest of a suspect in the drug operation. A complaint and warrant was issued March 29 against Miriam Cartagena, a/k/a Miriam Perez, (DOB 4/25/61), of 6423 Walton Ave., Pennsauken, NJ, charging her with conspiracy to distribute cocaine and traveling in interstate commerce between Philadelphia and New Jersey to distribute the proceeds of an illegal drug business. She was arraigned before Magistrate Edwin E. Naythons and is currently in custody awaiting a pretrial detention hearing on April 4, 1995. The cash was discovered when the Drug Enforcement Administration, acting on an anonymous tip, executed a search of a storage locker on the Black Horse Pike in Sicklerville, NJ. The defendant is the wife of William Cartagena, allegedly a leader of the Mascher and Indiana Drug Posse, which was indicted on conspiracy and cocaine distribution charges in 1993. William Cartagena is awaiting trial on those charges. The case was investigated by the Drug Enforcement Administration; the Drug Enforcement Administration, Camden; the Internal Revenue Service, the Philadelphia Police Department, and the Pennsylvania Bureau of Narcotics Investigation. The case is being handled by Assistant U.S. Attorneys Joseph T. Labrum III, and M. Taylor Aspinwall. /delval/ -0- 3/31/95 /CONTACT: Fred Hamilton, Public Affairs Officer of the U.S. Attorney's Office, 215-451-5636/ CO: U.S. Attorney's Office ST: Pennsylvania IN: SU: APn 03/31/95 Bolivia-US-Extradition LA PAZ, Bolivia (AP) -- Bolivia extradited the former head of its anti-drug agency to the United States on Friday to stand trial on cocaine trafficking charges. Col. Faustino Rico Toro was ordered extradited by Bolivia's Supreme Court, which ruled in favor of a U.S. Embassy request submitted last year. Rico Toro, who maintains he is innocent, left Friday from the southeastern city of Cochabamba aboard a U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration plane for Miami. Rico Toro, 63, was named to head Bolivia's anti-drug force in February 1991 by former President Jaime Paz Zamora, but was forced to step down 10 days later after Washington threatened to suspend economic aid to Bolivia. APn 04/01/95 Netherlands-Soft Drugs By JENIFER CHAO Associated Press Writer AMSTERDAM, Netherlands (AP) -- Marijuana with your coffee? It's a favorite tradition for some in Amsterdam, but one that officials in the Dutch capital are less than high on these days. The city wants to halve the number of coffee shops allowed to sell hashish and marijuana, the latest move to restrict the flourishing Dutch drug trade. Authorities are rethinking their permissive approach to drugs after finding some "soft" drug outlets have been used to sell cocaine and heroin. "We've had problems with the coffee shops for years," police spokesman Klass Wilting said Saturday. "Regulations will give us better control over them." Local authorities allow hundreds of coffee shops nationwide to sell hashish and marijuana in small quantities. Although drugs remain illegal, the Dutch have long felt that a non-prosecution approach allows easier monitoring by law enforcement authorities. But pressure from neighboring European states with tougher drug laws has forced a reconsideration, and Amsterdam has been shutting down coffee shops it found to be dealing in "hard" drugs like heroin and cocaine. Sales and possession of drugs intended for personal use are not prosecuted. Police focus their efforts on stopping large-scale trafficking. What they don't want is over-the-counter sales of hard drugs that would increase the problem of drug tourism from other European countries. Coffee shops can operate as long as they follow a set of guidelines which ban hard drugs and sales to minors under the age of 16. A maximum of 1.05 ounces of soft drugs can be sold per purchase. But Amsterdam authorities want that age minimum raised to 18 and want all shops to close by midnight, instead of the usual 1 or 2 a.m. Under the proposed legislation, no new coffee shops would be allowed in Amsterdam, and existing ones would not be permitted to sell both soft drugs and alcohol. Authorities hope coffee shops will switch to the more lucrative business of selling alcoholic beverages. The City Council will vote on the proposal in June. Its chances are good, given the prevailing conservative mood. "There are really too many coffee shops here," said Ray Bangma, who works at one of the city's biggest, Coffeeshop 36. "Less of them might mean better business for us." RTw 04/01/95 Singapore arrests 32 over drugs at disco SINGAPORE, April 1 (Reuter) - Police arrested 32 Singaporeans on Friday in connection with drug consumption and possession at a popular discotheque, state television said. Those arrested included patrons and employees of the disco Zouk and a drug trafficker, state television said on Saturday. The outlet is now under investigation by the Central Narcotics Bureau, television said. Bureau officials were unavailable for comment. About 850 grams of cannabis and several hundred pills containing controlled drugs were found at the site. Police believe parties were held after operating hours in which drugs were freely passed around. No other information was available. Under Singapore's tough drug laws, the death sentence is mandatory for anyone over 18 years of age found guilty of trafficking in more than 500 grams (18 ounces) of cannabis, 15 grams (half an ounce) of heroin or 30 grams (an ounce) of morphine. REUTER UPce 04/02/95 mi-hashbash Weather cools marijuana rally ANN ARBOR, Mich., April 1 (UPI) -- More than 3,000 people gathered at the University of Michigan campus Saturday to join in the 24th annual Hash Bash, a festival celebrating marijuana. Speakers and performers advocated legalizing the drug, but gray skies and 40-degree temperatures left them with a smaller audience than in previous years. Rain fell in the afternoon, driving away all but the most dedicated celebrants. The focus of the all-day event was a one-hour noontime presentation by HEMP (Help Eliminate Marijuana Prohibition) Ann Arbor. Musicians played and sang about their experiences with the drug, and Shawn Brown, a student libertarian, cited legal, moral and logical grounds for repealing the prohibition of marijuana. Other speakers advocated the use of hemp, a fiber obtained from the same plant as marijuana. "We support (marijuana's) medical use as well as other uses like paper, cloth and stuff like that," said HEMP Ann Arbor member Diana Christoff, a U-M student from Plymouth, Mich. In the crowd, marijuana was being used for recreation only. Dozens of people cast wary glances over their shoulders before lighting up. On patrol were U-M campus police, the Ann Arbor Police, the Washtenaw County Sheriff's Department, and the Michigan State Police. "If we see someone smoking marijuana," said Lt. Joe Piersante, of the university's Department of Public Safety, "we will move in and arrest that individual." University spokesperson Julie Peterson said police made 73 arrests for marijuana possession. Peterson estimated Saturday's crowd at 3,500, considerably smaller than in past years. The university said some 6,000 people gathered at last year's Hash Bash, when the weather was sunny and warmer. "All in all," said Peterson, "it was a relatively subdued Hash Bash, much quieter than last year." Still, local merchants noticed a surge in customer traffic. Cafes and restaurants did two or three times the normal amount of business. Mark TerHarr, manager of Splash, an alternative clothing store that features hemp products, said "there's more people, but most of them are just looking." Street merchants also took advantage of the crowds. Hemp and cotton t-shirts with all kinds of pro-pot slogans and psychedelic designs were available on nearly every corner. Gonzalo Ruffat, a U-M student from Bethesda, Md., was selling vodka bottles converted into water-pipes labeled "for tobacco use only." "We made about 120," said Ruffat, "and they're selling pretty well." After the rain began, the Hash Bash crowd dispersed, leaving behind thousands of cigarette butts, papers, trash, broken bottles and ashes from the plant they gathered to celebrate. APn 04/03/95 Pakistan-US Drugs By RICHARD PYLE Associated Press Writer NEW YORK (AP) -- Two of Pakistan's most notorious drug barons were on their way to the United States on Monday to face charges of heroin and hashish trafficking, U.S. officials said. Iqbal Baig and Anwar Khattak, already serving prison terms in Pakistan for drug smuggling, left that country Sunday evening just hours after a high court in Rawalpindi rejected their appeals of a U.S. demand for extradition. There was no word from federal authorities on exactly where or when they would arrive in the United States. U.S. Justice Department sources in Washington, speaking on condition of anonymity, said the final destination was federal court in the Brooklyn borough of New York City, where the two would be arraigned on 102 counts of drug smuggling. The FBI, the Drug Enforcement Administration and the U.S. attorney's office in Brooklyn all said they had no information about the case. A Justice Department official described Baig, about 58, as Pakistan's top drug lord and Khattak, 43, as a close associate. In 20 years of drug smuggling, both became wealthy and politically influential and traveled with armed bodyguards, the official said. He said Baig also is charged with conducting a criminal enterprise under the federal "drug kingpin" law. Monday's extradition appeared timed to precede Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's visit to the United States, which begins Wednesday. The United States has pressured Pakistan to crack down on drug trafficking, and Ms. Bhutto wants U.S. aid to combat drug smuggling and terrorism in Pakistan, which she portrays as a moderate Islamic state in need of Western help. Opium poppies are widely grown in neighboring Afghanistan, where law and order collapsed during 16 years of war. Opium is transported to western Pakistan, refined into heroin and shipped on to Europe and the United States. In 1993, the United States gave Pakistan a list of 17 suspected drug lords that it wanted extradited. Seven were sent here that year and most of the others are held in Pakistan. Baig and Khattak were arrested in Lahore in 1993 and later convicted of drug smuggling. This case is the second high-profile extradition of a suspect from Pakistan to the United States in recent months. Ramzi Yousef, accused of masterminding the 1993 bombing of New York's World Trade Center, was arrested in Islamabad on Feb. 7 and flown to New York to face trial. PA 04/04/95 POLICE `SORRY' FOR DRUGS RAID AT PENSIONER'S HOME By Brian Unwin, PA News Police have apologised after officers searching for drugs used a battering ram to smash their way into the home of a 79-year-old woman. The seven officers with two sniffer dogs told emphysema sufferer Willma Mitchell, who was in bed with an oxygen mask over her face, they were looking for cannabis. Police found no drugs in the home. They arrested Mrs Mitchell's grandson, John Newark, 19, but released him without charge after a seven-minute interview. Mrs Mitchell, of Hadrian Park, Wallsend, Tyne and Wear, said she planned to make an official complaint, adding: "I was so frightened I nearly died." Northumbria Police have expressed regret over any distress caused during the operation and have made arrangements for the door lock and a pane of glass to be repaired. A spokesman said they had been acting on a tip-off and obtained a search warrant under the Misuse of Drugs Act. "Where the presence of drugs is suspected, entry to premises must be gained as quickly as possible," he added. WP 04/04/95 Drug Lords' Influence Pervading Mexico; Neighbor, Last Line of Defense for U.S., Now Likened to Colombia By Douglas Farah Washington Post Foreign Service Three weeks before Mexican presidential candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio was assassinated, he made a swing through Monterrey to attend a fund-raising dinner. Among those invited was a leader of one of the country's most powerful drug trafficking cartels. A counter-narcotics adviser to Mexico's attorney general warned Colosio and the drug kingpin, Humberto Garcia Abrego, was scratched unceremoniously from the presidential candidate's guest list. "But it shows you how deeply the drug traffickers have penetrated in Mexico," said Eduardo Valle, the former anti-drug adviser, who fled Mexico after Colosio's assassination a year ago and now lives outside Washington. "It was not thought of as unusual that someone like Garcia Abrego be openly invited." Drug traffickers are widely blamed for the murder of Colosio, as well as the slayings on May 24, 1993, of a Roman Catholic cardinal and on Sept. 28, 1994, of a top political leader. The three killings shocked Mexico, once viewed as one of the hemisphere's most stable countries, and came as the United States and Canada joined Mexico in the North American Free Trade Agreement. The Mexican organizations, in recent years, have seen their political and economic clout grow as they have tightened their alliance with a new group of traffickers emerging in Colombia, tied to the Cali cartel -- expanding cooperation not only in the lucrative cocaine trade, but also in the joint production and transport of heroin, according to law enforcement sources. What makes the expanding role of Mexico in drug trafficking especially dangerous, U.S. officials said, is that the fight in Colombia, home of the most powerful cocaine cartels, is widely viewed as lost, a victim of a lack of political will there as well as the traffickers' ability to penetrate and corrupt even the most senior levels of government. Amid accusations that Colombian President Ernesto Samper took money from the Cali cartel for his campaign and is unwilling to move against the Cali leadership, Mexico -- and its 2,000-mile border with the United States -- is now seen as the last line of defense and primary battleground in the war on drugs. "We cannot have a successful counter-narcotics strategy without the governments of Colombia and Mexico on board," a senior law enforcement official said. "We don't have Colombia anymore. Mexico is not quite Colombia, but if left unchecked, it has all the earmarks of Colombia eight or 10 years ago when the cartels were consolidating their base, gaining control of the media and co-opting government institutions." Mexican Attorney General Antonio Lozano acknowledged recently that some of his country's drug gangs have grown into large organizations, but he rejected the idea that they have infiltrated as deeply into politics and the economy as in Colombia. "In no way can we talk of those levels," he said in a meeting with Washington Post reporters and editors. U.S. narcotics experts said that while Mexico has long been viewed as a major transshipment point for narcotics -- including cocaine, heroin and marijuana -- to the United States, it had not been seen as a central battleground like Colombia. Now, U.S. officials estimate that at least 70 percent of the 650 to 1,000 tons of cocaine consumed in the United States enters by land from Mexico. In a recent report, the State Department said Mexico "is a major source country for marijuana and heroin available in the United States and is the principal transit route for cocaine entering the United States. It is also a major money-laundering center. It is therefore critical to U.S. drug control efforts." In an admission of how Washington has viewed Samper since before his election, the State Department denied annual certification of Colombia's full cooperation in the drug war last month, although it issued a national security waiver that allows aid to continue. Robert Gelbard, assistant secretary of state for international narcotics and law enforcement, has publicly condemned the "overall atmosphere involving serious corruption which has really pervaded" many Colombian institutions. Gelbard said the Clinton administration is "very concerned" about a December 1994 incident, first reported by the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, in which Colombian police in Cali tried to capture Miguel Rodriguez Orejuela, one of the world's most-wanted drug traffickers. Senior U.S. officials said police received a tip that Rodriguez would be at a daughter's birthday party at the Intercontinental Hotel. He was not captured, and within two days both Samper and his defense minister apologized for the raid, saying it had endangered women and children. U.S. officials were outraged by the apology and said reports in the Colombian press saying that it was made after Rodriguez called Samper demanding an apology were "credible," although unproven. Samper denies any connection with the Cali cartel and has said the United States does not appreciate Colombia's efforts against drug trafficking. Robert Bonner, director of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) from 1990 to '93, said that as Mexican traffickers become stronger, there is a "growing danger of the Colombianization of Mexico, where the traffickers become so powerful they will be able to influence the legitimate institutions of government." He and U.S. officials said that Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo has moved more aggressively than any of his predecessors to crack down on the drug organizations that have gained influence. Zedillo allowed the arrest of Raul Salinas de Gortari, brother of former president Carlos Salinas de Gortari, on charges of ordering the murder last September of political leader Jose Francisco Ruiz Massieu. Zedillo also added drug trafficking to the charges against Ruiz Massieu's brother, Mario Ruiz Massieu, who is in a U.S. prison and is accused in Mexico of covering up the murder of his brother and protecting Raul Salinas. Millions of dollars have been found in his bank accounts, indicating ties to drug trafficking, Mexican officials say. It is Mexico's proximity to the United States and a long tradition of smuggling across the border that first led to the alliance of Mexican trafficking organizations with the Colombians. Narcotics experts date the first formal alliance to 1984, when the DEA had begun attacking smuggler routes through the Caribbean, driving the Colombians to look for alternatives. The key link, the officials said, was Juan Ramon Matta Ballesteros, a Honduran now serving a life sentence in the United States for drug trafficking. Matta Ballesteros, who was arrested in 1988, worked with both the Medellin and Cali cartels in Colombia, and set up ties to Mexican traffickers such as Rafael Caro Quintero and Miguel Angel Felix Gallardo. Caro Quintero was involved in the 1985 murder of DEA agent Enrique Camarena. Felix Gallardo is in jail, but his operation still flourishes. Valle, the former counter-narcotics adviser, whose information was corroborated by law enforcement sources and administration officials, said that initially the Colombians would drop large loads of cocaine in northern Mexico, and Mexican organizations would move them across the border for a fee -- usually about $1,000 a kilo -- where Colombians directed distribution. In the early 1990s, the Colombians, especially the Medellin cartel, which was in disarray and facing cash-flow problems, began paying the Mexicans in drugs, not cash. The Mexican organizations began setting up their own U.S. distribution networks, a much more lucrative way of operating. Instead of $1,000 a kilo, they were able to sell cocaine for up to $15,000 a kilo. In the last two years, the Colombians began flying multi-ton shipments of cocaine directly from Colombia to northern Mexico. Now an entire cargo often is turned over to the Mexicans, who pay for it in cash and then are in charge of transporting and distributing it -- the soaring profits ushering in a new era of drug-trafficking influence in Mexico. U.S. officials said Mexicans bring back loads of cash for the Colombians and the money is flown back to Colombia on the aircraft. "From the Colombians' point of view, this operation is much more secure," a senior U.S. law enforcement official said. "There is only one shipment, they deal with one person on the Mexican end, and there is less personnel and therefore less risk of leaks or other trouble. For the Mexicans, it means hundreds of millions more dollars." A senior official said that while moving drugs in large, single loads is riskier than dividing it up into several smaller ones, "they don't get caught very often. Knowing how they move things and stopping those movements are two very different things." The Mexicans move the drugs across the U.S. border by land using tractor-trailer trucks, cars with hidden compartments, recreational vehicles and people on foot. "Anything that moves is fair game," a U.S. law enforcement official said. "They can put thousands of trucks on the road every day, and leave it to us to try to pick out the few that are carrying cocaine." Over time, officials said, three major trafficking organizations, and about a dozen smaller ones, have grown up in Mexico, dividing up the border area and the profits. As in the Cali cartel, the groups are largely based on family ties, making them difficult to penetrate. According to Valle, Bonner, and officials on both sides of the border, the main groups are: The Tijuana cartel, run by brothers Ramon and Benjamin Arellano Felix, among the most wanted traffickers in Mexico, and suspected of the 1993 murder of Cardinal Juan Jesus Posadas Ocampo. A third brother, Francisco Rafael, was arrested in 1993 and is in prison. In March 1994, Mexican police said Ismael Higuera Guerrero, a chief lieutenant of the Arellano Felix group, was being protected by state police in Tijuana when they fought a battle with their federal counterparts who were seeking to arrest Higuera. The Juarez cartel, with at least two factions, controls the middle area of the border. One faction reportedly is run by a nephew of jailed drug lord Ernesto Fonseca Carrillo. The other, law enforcement officials said, is run by Rafael Aguilar, a former federal police commander. His organization, the DEA said, smuggled in 21 tons of cocaine confiscated in 1989 in Sylmar, Calif. -- the largest bust in DEA's history. The third group, and, according to law enforcement officials, the strongest at this time, is the Gulf cartel, run by the Garcia Abrego family, which controls the region along the Gulf of Mexico. It is based in Tamaulipas. Juan Garcia Abrego, the brother of the man who did not come to dinner in Monterrey, is on the FBI's most-wanted list. While Zedillo's efforts so far to go after traffickers and those they have corrupted are drawing praise, the outcome is far from certain. "Drug trafficking is not a problem of Colombia or of Mexico," Valle said. "We are dealing with . . . transnational corporate structures. Traffickers have not yet taken over in Mexico. They still cannot block all decisions made, and things can move forward. But we are only one step away."
Compiled byPaul Stanford